An Overview of Mood Disorders and its types

An issue with a person’s mental health known as depression predominantly impacts how they feel emotionally. It is a condition where a person goes through prolonged times of intense pleasure, severe depression, or both of these emotions. It is natural for a person’s disposition to shift based on their circumstances.

However, to get a diagnosis of mood disorders, symptoms must have been present for a period that is at least a few weeks long. Changes in behavior and an impaired capacity to cope with everyday tasks, such as going to work or school, are both symptoms that mood disorders may cause.

Types of Mood Disorders

Some examples of mood disorders are as follows:

Bipolar and related disorder

There are several medical diseases that, when present, might mimic the symptoms of bipolar illness. Therefore, the presence of proof indicating the emotional disruption is the physiological effect of another medical disease (as opposed to a mental disorder) is required to make this diagnosis.

Bipolar I disorder

This condition used to be more often known as manic depression. Mania is characterized by elevated emotions that might range from ecstatic to irritated, as well as increased energy or activity levels. People with bipolar I disorder often engage in dangerous behaviors during manic episodes. These behaviors may have adverse effects not just on the person with the disorder but also on others.

Bipolar II disorder

A person must have experienced at least one episode of hypomania, a less severe type of mania, and at minimum one episode of significant depression, either now or in the past, to be diagnosed with bipolar II. However, the individual must not have a history of experiencing any bouts of mania.

Cyclothymic disorder

A history of at least two years of numerous episodes resembling hypomania or profound depression, but none of which fit the criteria for either disorder is required for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.

Depressive disorder

This diagnosis is used for those who exhibit the symptoms of depression, and it is comparable to bipolar disorder, which is associated with another medical condition.

On the other hand, the symptoms have a clear connection to a preexisting medical condition like hypothyroidism.

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

This depressive disorder has been added to the DSM-5 for children ages 6 to 18 who exhibit persistent irritability, anger, and common episodes of severe temper tantrums without any significant provocation. The symptoms of this disorder are the same as those of major depressive disorder.

Major depressive disorder

It is typically what people mean when they talk about having significant depression as well as clinical depression. It is characterized by periods of extreme melancholy, a loss of hope, or a feeling of emptiness. It is preceded by various symptoms that affect one’s body, mind, and emotions.

Other specified or unspecified bipolar

When a person does not match the criteria for any other form of bipolar illness, these diagnoses may be used instead. However, they exhibit some signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder, such as a hypomanic episode that lasts for just two days.

Other specified or unspecified depressive disorder

These diagnoses may be applied to a person experiencing a depressive illness, but they do not satisfy all of the criteria for any other kind of depressive disorder. It makes it possible to discuss why the appearance does not fulfill any particular depressive illness requirements.

Persistent depressive disorder

This diagnosis is intended to cover both chronic severe depression and a major depressive disorder that has persisted for at least two years. In the past, people have referred to this condition as dysthymic disorder or dysthymia, which is a milder type of depression.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

The existence of one or more particular symptoms in the week before the beginning of menstruation. The remission of these symptoms follows following the onset of menstruation, which is required to establish this diagnosis.

The symptoms include changes in mood, irritability or anger, low mood or despair, and anxiety or tension, in addition to one or more of an additional seven different mood symptoms, for a total of roughly five symptoms.

Substance/medication-induced bipolar disorder

A person who is having symptoms of bipolar illness as a consequence of the use of alcohol, drugs, or medicine is described by this term. Substance/medication-induced depressive disorder This condition is diagnosed when someone suffers depression as a side effect of consuming alcohol, using drugs, or taking a prescription.

Signs and Symptoms

Mood problems may make it challenging to keep up with the activities and requirements of everyday life, which can be pretty frustrating. Some depressed individuals, particularly youngsters, may have physical manifestations of their condition, such as inexplicable stomachaches or headaches. Because there are many distinct mood disorders, their impact on an individual’s quality of life may vary significantly.

In general, the following symptoms may be present:

  • A decline of interest in pursuits that had previously given satisfaction
  • A flurry of activity in the brain
  • A lack of energy together with a sluggish sensation
  • A quick pace in either speech or action
  • A sense of having no value or future hope
  • Absence of an appetite or excessive eating
  • Anxiety, agitation, or irritation are all appropriate descriptors for this state.
  • Behaviors that put one at risk, such as spending too much money or driving in an unsafe manner
  • Having a predominant or practically constant feeling of melancholy nearly every day
  • Having a sense of agitation or nervousness for no apparent cause
  • Having an overwhelming sense of vitality or elation
  • If one is gaining or losing weight.
  • Insomnia or difficulties sleeping
  • Problems falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Frequent negative or suicidal thoughts
  • Unusual increase in activity level or the attempt to juggle an excessive number of tasks at once
Diagnosis

Your doctor may physically examine you to rule out the possibility that your symptoms are caused by a physiological issue, such as a thyroid condition, another sickness, or a vitamin deficiency. Your medical history, any drugs you are currently taking, and whether you or any family members have been diagnosed with such a mood disorder will be topics of discussion when you see the doctor. A mental health specialist, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, will conduct an interview or survey, asking questions about your symptoms, eating and sleeping patterns, and other behaviors.

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the actual sickness and symptoms that are present. Usually, treatment comprises a mix of medicine and psychotherapy. Therapy sessions may be done by a psychologist, psychiatrist, or other health professional.

Medications
  • Antidepressants
  • Mood stabilizers
  • Antipsychotics
Psychotherapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Interpersonal therapy
  • Problem-solving therapy
Brain stimulation therapies
  • Electroconvulsive therapy
  • Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Outlook for people with mood disorders

When you or a loved one is diagnosed with a mood illness, it may be challenging to know how to proceed. However, keep in mind that there are a lot of different things that might help you deal with it, including treatment.

If you are worried that you may be experiencing signs of a mood disorder, you should make an appointment with a medical professional who will be able to diagnose you if required. If you speak with your doctor openly and forthrightly, they will be better equipped to assist you by developing a treatment strategy for your condition.

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